Measuring and Improving Social Impacts

A Guide for Nonprofits, Companies, and Impact Investors

Marc Epstein (Author) | Kristi Yuthas (Author)

Publication date: 02/13/2014

Measuring and Improving Social Impacts

Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts.

  • Cowritten by the author of Making Sustainability Work , a book that revolutionized best practices in sustainability and has been widely adopted in boardrooms and classrooms
  • Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts
  • Based on interviews with over sixty foundations, nonprofits, corporations, and investment firms and filled with real-life examples

The world is beset with enormous problems that desperately need solutions. And as a nonprofit, NGO, foundation, impact investor, or socially responsible company, your organization is on a mission to provide those solutions.

But what exactly should you do? And how will you know whether it's working? Too many people assume that good intentions will result in meaningful actions and leave it at that. But thanks to Marc Epstein and Kristi Yuthas, social impact can now be evaluated with the same kind of precision achieved for any other organizational function.

Based on years of research and analysis of field studies from around the globe, Epstein and Yuthas offer a five-step process that will help you gain clarity about the impacts that matter most to you and will provide you with methods to measure and improve those impacts. They offer a systematic approach to deciding what resources you should invest, what problem you should address, and which activities and organizations you should support. Once you've made those decisions, they provide tools, frameworks, and metrics for defining exactly what success looks like, even for goals like reducing global warming or poverty that are extremely difficult to measure. Then they show you how to use the data you've gathered to further develop and increase your social impact.

Epstein and Yuthas personally interviewed leaders at over sixty different organizations for this book and include examples from nearly a hundred more. This is unquestionably the most complete, practical, and thoroughly researched guide to taking a rigorous, data-driven approach to expanding the good you do in the world.

  • Cowritten by the author of Making Sustainability Work , a book that revolutionized best practices in sustainability and has been widely adopted in boardrooms and classrooms
  • Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts
  • Based on interviews with over sixty foundations, nonprofits, corporations, and investment firms and filled with real-life examples

The world is beset with enormous problems that desperately need solutions. And as a nonprofit, NGO, foundation, impact investor, or socially responsible company, your organization is on a mission to provide those solutions.

But what exactly should you do? And how will you know whether it's working? Too many people assume that good intentions will result in meaningful actions and leave it at that. But thanks to Marc Epstein and Kristi Yuthas, social impact can now be evaluated with the same kind of precision achieved for any other organizational function.

Based on years of research and analysis of field studies from around the globe, Epstein and Yuthas offer a five-step process that will help you gain clarity about the impacts that matter most to you and will provide you with methods to measure and improve those impacts. They offer a systematic approach to deciding what resources you should invest, what problem you should address, and which activities and organizations you should support. Once you've made those decisions, they provide tools, frameworks, and metrics for defining exactly what success looks like, even for goals like reducing global warming or poverty that are extremely difficult to measure. Then they show you how to use the data you've gathered to further develop and increase your social impact.

Epstein and Yuthas personally interviewed leaders at over sixty different organizations for this book and include examples from nearly a hundred more. This is unquestionably the most complete, practical, and thoroughly researched guide to taking a rigorous, data-driven approach to expanding the good you do in the world. 

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Overview

Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts.

  • Cowritten by the author of Making Sustainability Work , a book that revolutionized best practices in sustainability and has been widely adopted in boardrooms and classrooms
  • Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts
  • Based on interviews with over sixty foundations, nonprofits, corporations, and investment firms and filled with real-life examples

The world is beset with enormous problems that desperately need solutions. And as a nonprofit, NGO, foundation, impact investor, or socially responsible company, your organization is on a mission to provide those solutions.

But what exactly should you do? And how will you know whether it's working? Too many people assume that good intentions will result in meaningful actions and leave it at that. But thanks to Marc Epstein and Kristi Yuthas, social impact can now be evaluated with the same kind of precision achieved for any other organizational function.

Based on years of research and analysis of field studies from around the globe, Epstein and Yuthas offer a five-step process that will help you gain clarity about the impacts that matter most to you and will provide you with methods to measure and improve those impacts. They offer a systematic approach to deciding what resources you should invest, what problem you should address, and which activities and organizations you should support. Once you've made those decisions, they provide tools, frameworks, and metrics for defining exactly what success looks like, even for goals like reducing global warming or poverty that are extremely difficult to measure. Then they show you how to use the data you've gathered to further develop and increase your social impact.

Epstein and Yuthas personally interviewed leaders at over sixty different organizations for this book and include examples from nearly a hundred more. This is unquestionably the most complete, practical, and thoroughly researched guide to taking a rigorous, data-driven approach to expanding the good you do in the world.

  • Cowritten by the author of Making Sustainability Work , a book that revolutionized best practices in sustainability and has been widely adopted in boardrooms and classrooms
  • Offers a detailed, reliable, and proven approach to rigorously evaluating and increasing the social impact of philanthropic efforts
  • Based on interviews with over sixty foundations, nonprofits, corporations, and investment firms and filled with real-life examples

The world is beset with enormous problems that desperately need solutions. And as a nonprofit, NGO, foundation, impact investor, or socially responsible company, your organization is on a mission to provide those solutions.

But what exactly should you do? And how will you know whether it's working? Too many people assume that good intentions will result in meaningful actions and leave it at that. But thanks to Marc Epstein and Kristi Yuthas, social impact can now be evaluated with the same kind of precision achieved for any other organizational function.

Based on years of research and analysis of field studies from around the globe, Epstein and Yuthas offer a five-step process that will help you gain clarity about the impacts that matter most to you and will provide you with methods to measure and improve those impacts. They offer a systematic approach to deciding what resources you should invest, what problem you should address, and which activities and organizations you should support. Once you've made those decisions, they provide tools, frameworks, and metrics for defining exactly what success looks like, even for goals like reducing global warming or poverty that are extremely difficult to measure. Then they show you how to use the data you've gathered to further develop and increase your social impact.

Epstein and Yuthas personally interviewed leaders at over sixty different organizations for this book and include examples from nearly a hundred more. This is unquestionably the most complete, practical, and thoroughly researched guide to taking a rigorous, data-driven approach to expanding the good you do in the world. 

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Meet the Authors


Visit Author Page - Marc Epstein

Marc J. Epstein, MBA, PhD, is Distinguished Research Professor of Management at Jones Graduate School of Business at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Prior to joining Rice, Dr. Epstein was a professor at Stanford Business School, Harvard Business School, and INSEAD (European Institute of Business Administration). In both academic research and managerial practice, Dr. Epstein is considered one of the global luminaries in the areas of sustainability, governance, performance measurement, and accountability in both corporations and nonprofit organizations. His 20 authored or co-authored books and over 100 professional articles include many award winners, including Making Innovation Work: How to Manage It, Measure It, and Profit from It (2006) and Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental, and Economic Impacts (2008).

Dr. Epstein is also currently working extensively in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America on microfinance, entrepreneurship, education, and the commercialization and dissemination of low-cost health technologies. In the middle of his MBA class, all of his students travel with him to Rwanda or Liberia to work on the commercialization of health technologies for the poor.



Visit Author Page - Kristi Yuthas


Kristi Yuthas is the Swigert Endowed Professor of Management and Information Systems in the School of Business Administration at Portland State University in Portland, Oregon. Before joining PSU, Dr. Yuthas worked in accounting, financial analysis, and information system development. She has held faculty positions at a number of universities, including American University and City University of New York, and has conducted research and training seminars in Asia, South America, and other places around the world.

Since joining PSU, Dr. Yuthas’ academic work has focused on organizational, ethical, and financial issues associated with information and performance measurement systems. In recent years, her research has expanded to study microfinance, microentrepreneurship, and scaling in the nonprofit sector. Dr. Yuthas has been recognized as a top-50 researcher worldwide in accounting systems, and as a leading researcher in a number of other areas. She has more than 100 publications and presentations in the fields of business and development.

In her professional work, Dr. Yuthas has two major streams of interest. She consults with large multinational companies on corporate social responsibility and sustainability, helping organizations implement their strategies through effective performance measurement and reporting systems. She also consults with social sector organizations and investors on issues relating to measuring, scaling, and amplifying social and environmental impact.

She is currently working on a book on corporate social responsibility in India. The recently passed Indian Companies Act requires large companies to allocate 2 percent of their profits toward social and environmental impact.

Through this work, she hopes to help Indian corporations maximize their social impact and to spread these pioneering ideas to other countries around the world. Dr. Yuthas lives in Portland, Oregon, with her three children, where they enjoy hiking, traveling, and exploring food carts.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part 1 What Will You Invest?

1 The Social Impact Creation Cycle

2 Understanding the Investor

Part 2 What Problem Will You Address?

3 Understanding the Problem

4 Understanding the Investment Options

Part 3 What Steps Will You Take?

5 How Social Impacts Are Created

6 Linking Actions to Impacts

Part 4 How Will You Measure Success?

7 Measurement Basics

8 Measurement Approaches

9 Measuring Your Impact

Part 5 How Can You Increase Impact?

10 Social Impact Measurement Maturity

11 Amplifying Your Impact

12 Call to Action

Social Impact Self-Assessment

Notes

Bibliography

Index

About the Authors

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Excerpt

Measuring and Improving Social Impacts

Introduction

You are on a hero’s journey. You have decided to invest your most valuable possessions—your time, your money, your knowledge—to help others. Not content to sit back and watch, you have joined the effort to tackle some of the world’s most difficult challenges: challenges such as poverty, health, climate change, and security. You know that you face enormous odds. Social and environmental problems in both developed and developing countries are immense, and the resources we have available to address them are wholly inadequate to the task. Some of the institutions that help address these problems—governments, NGOs, and corporations—are unable or unwilling to devote anywhere near the resources needed to make meaningful and lasting headway in eradicating serious social problems. Yet you are not giving up. Against all odds, you continue to work diligently or invest generously in the causes you care about, believing that your gifts will make a difference, that you can change the world. And you can.

This book will serve as a guide on that journey. It will help you turn scarce resources into meaningful investments that will, in turn, make significant improvements in society. We have written this book to help you and others like you create the most meaningful impact possible with the resources you control.

There are over one million nonprofit organizations in the United States alone and millions more across the globe. The number, breadth, and depth of these organizations have grown significantly in recent years and will continue to grow. Rapid growth is occuring in social enterprise and impact investing. As social investments flow in, it is essential to figure out ways to make sure that the money will have an impact. The impact investing industry can learn the lessons gained through decades of governmental and nonprofit investments. Both up-front investigation and ongoing assessment are needed to ensure that your investments are on track to create the desired impact.

Traditional profit-oriented corporations, too, have become much more interested in understanding and managing their impacts. Social issues no longer take a back seat to profits, and companies have many boundaries, such as avoiding child labor, that aren’t subject to cost-benefit analysis. Almost all of the world’s largest companies now routinely monitor social impacts and produce annual sustainability reports. The expectation that companies will contribute to society has never been greater. India has just passed a law that requires large companies to contribute 2 percent of their profits to social causes or publicly explain why there were unable to do so.

But growth in the number of organizations and faith in the good intentions of everyone involved are not enough. Organizations need to develop the ability to know whether they’re making a difference and to know how to invest wisely so that they can do better over time.

While working with organizations and industries attempting to create social benefits, we have been surprised over and over again by the difficulties that investors and organizations face in their efforts to make social change. These unpleasant surprises relate to the roadblocks organizations and the social sector encounter in their attempts to produce positive impacts. As Table 1 shows, however, for each surprise there is an emerging opportunity to overcome obstacles and improve performance.

Table 1 Surprises and Opportunities

Unpleasant Surprise

Opportunity

Lack of organizational capacity for performance measurement

Demand for clear social impact strategies and action plans

Lack of incentives and market discipline to develop advanced social impact measurement systems

Pressure to develop measurement systems and increasing resources available for doing so

Lack of serious, significant investment in the social sector

New business and investment models that draw resources into impact markets

Focus on performance measurement is often small subset of organizational impacts

Development of integrated impact models and marketplaces for social impact data

This book is designed for people who are serious about social change and want to put their resources to work in the most effective way. Although the book is packed with a variety of tools and techniques, its core message is simple. To make an impact you’ll need to:

• Define what success means to you, and

• Figure out how you’ll know when you’ve achieved it.

Once you’ve made these key decisions, you’ll find it much easier to evaluate your current progress and make changes to improve your performance.

Many investors and service providers are guilty of fooling themselves about the impacts they are making. They do this by assuming that good intentions lead to meaningful actions, by confusing the amount of action with the quality of results, and by basing important decisions on instincts instead of evidence. Perhaps you are guilty of some of these habits; if so, this book will provide you with valuable tools for overcoming them.

One common problem is defining success in terms of what the organization produces rather than the impacts that result. Table 2 shows some examples of goals based on an organization’s outputs compared to goals based on the impacts those outputs create. The distinctions here can be subtle, but it is essential that we focus on impacts for the following reasons: actions don’t always have the anticipated results, instincts aren’t always correct, and without understanding impacts it is difficult to improve them.

Table 2 Goals Based on Outputs versus Goals Based on Impacts

Goals Based on Outputs

Goals Based on Impacts

We want to deliver meals to 10,000 homeless people.

We want to reduce hunger by 5%.

We want to provide 1 million insecticide-soaked bed nets.

We want to reduce malaria by 5,000 cases.

We want to convert 10,000 families from cooking with wood to cooking with gas.

We want to reduce residential CO2 emissions by 50%.

We want to teach reading to 500 primary school students.

We want to increase literacy in the village by 10%.

Humans are fallible. Psychological research has shown us over and over again that what we see and hear is strongly influenced by what we believe. Whether we believe the economy is getting better or worse might be influenced by whether we have a job. Whether we believe a school system is good or bad might be influenced by how much our own children seem to be learning. And whether we think our organization’s free meals are reducing hunger might be influenced by the heartfelt thank-yous we received when we last served food.

This book will help you gain clarity about the impacts that matter most to you, and it will provide you with methods to measure and improve those impacts. Even for long-term impacts like reducing global warming or poverty that are difficult to measure or to attribute to any one investment or organizational initiative, you’ll discover methods for evaluating your potential and actual contributions. Indeed, our purpose is not to try to turn you into a “randomista”—industry slang for those who believe that conducting scientific experiments, or randomized control trials, is the only way to know whether your outcomes are producing impacts. While such methods can be useful in certain circumstances, there are many ways to use both logic and other forms of intelligence and evidence to evaluate and prove the impacts you are making.

This book’s architecture is based on the Social Impact Creation Cycle. We developed the cycle to describe the steps that we believe are most necessary for creating and improving impacts. The cycle is introduced and described in chapter 1 and the steps in the cycle are discussed in depth throughout the book. The cycle is based on the five most fundamental questions faced by companies, and nonprofits, and investors seeking to maximize their social impact:

1. What will you invest?

2. What problem will you address?

3. What steps will you take?

4. How will you measure success?

5. How can you increase impact?

To address these questions, we have developed frameworks, described short case studies of organizational best practices, and provided guides to action. In addition, we have developed an online companion to this book, the Social Impact Self-Assessment tool. The tool will help you answer these five questions and assess your progress on the social impact creation journey. Further information on this self-assessment tool can be found on page 213. The book is divided into five sections:

Part 1: What Will You Invest?

Chapter 1, The Social Impact Creation Cycle, describes the Social Impact Creation Cycle and explains how it is used in subsequent chapters to help you define, measure, and improve social impacts.

Chapter 2, Understanding the Investor, explores the complex set of motivations that affect investor and donor decisions and the resources that investors can contribute to create impact.

Part 2: What Problem Will You Address?

Chapter 3, Understanding the Problem, considers ways investors can choose social causes to support, the approaches for addressing these causes, and the populations or regions to target.

Chapter 4, Understanding the Investment Options, surveys options for structuring and targeting investments and describes alternative roles, both active and passive, investors can take in those organizations.

Part 3: What Steps Will You Take?

Chapter 5, How Social Impacts Are Created, summarizes the basic avenues through which organizations create positive and negative social impacts—through products and services, through operations, and through investments.

Chapter 6, Linking Actions to Impacts, describes the essential ingredients for planning and guiding impact creation: missions, strategies, theories of change, and logic models.

Part 4: How Will You Measure Success?

Chapter 7, Measurement Basics, explores basic technical and behavioral concepts associated with measuring performance in general and social impacts in particular.

Chapter 8, Measurement Approaches, inventories and describes basic approaches to impact measurement and provides examples of tools used by leading organizations.

Chapter 9, Measuring Your Impact, builds on the impact planning discussed in chapter 6 and the measurement foundations in chapters 7 and 8 to provide guidance on how organizations can measure and report social impact.

Part 5: How Can You Increase Impact?

Chapter 10, Social Impact Measurement Maturity, describes a five-level maturity model that can be used to assess the qualities of existing impact measurement systems and to guide development of more effective systems.

Chapter 11, Amplifying Your Impact, explores ways to increase impact by innovating, scaling your organization, and contributing knowledge and resources to industry and sectorwide efforts to promote impact.

Chapter 12, Call to Action, summarizes the significant opportunities that exist to dramatically increase social impact through a careful implementation of the Social Impact Creation Cycle.

The Social Impact Creation Cycle and the book’s chapters integrate the experiences from our substantial work in this field, an extensive examination of literature in numerous related fields, and the findings from a large field research project on the measurement of social impacts that included visits and interviews with dozens of leaders in the United States, the UK, and India. The project included both investors and investees. It covered government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, social enterprises, corporate sustainability leaders, and company managers interested in the impact of their ordinary products, services, and supply chains. It also involved leaders in public foundations, corporate foundations, and private family foundations—both large and small. It included some organizations that had well-developed monitoring and evaluation departments, and others that were struggling to create them. All of these organizations—even those known for being measurement experts—discussed a significant need for a book that could provide better guidance on identifying, defining, measuring, and improving social impacts.

You will find many new topics and discussions here that are based on our work with these organizations and are unique to this book. Our affiliations with universities have provided us a vantage point that has yielded powerful insights. Rather than focusing on any particular grantor or grantee, we were able to travel extensively to work with organizations on the ground in many countries. In addition, our university experience has helped us thoroughly ground our work in previous academic and managerial research.

American Express

American Institute of Philanthropy

Annie E. Casey Foundation

Ashoka

AT&T

Bank of America

Beijing LangLang Learning Potential Development Centre

Best Buy

Better Business Bureau

Betty Ford Center

Big Society Capital

Calvert Investments

Campbell Soup Foundation

CARE International

Charity Navigator

Children’s Aid Society

Chrysalis

Coca-Cola Company

Code for America

Connected by 25

Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse

Creative Commons

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)

Domini Social Investments

Endeavorl

Exxon Mobil

Foodcycle

Foundation Center

Gill Foundation

Girl Scouts

GiveWell

Global Impact Investing Network

Goldman Sachs

Grassroots Business Fund

GreenXchange

Guidestar

Habitat for Humanity

HLL Lifecare

Hope Consulting

Houston Food Bank

Intellecap

International Labour Organization

Jewish Vocational Service

John S. & James L. Knight Foundation

JPMorgan Chase & Co.

Kickstarter

Kids Wish Network

Korean War Veterans National Museum and Library

Kresge Foundation

Laura and John Arnold Foundation

Law Enforcement Education Program

LifeSpring Hospitals

Locks of Love

Meyer Memorial Trust

Mothers Against Drunk Driving

Naya Jeevan

Newmont Ghana Gold Limited

Oddo Securities

Patagonia

PUMA

Raising Malawi

Root Capital

Royal Bank of Scotland

Social Impact Exchange

Society of St. Andrew

Sunlight Foundation

Taj Hotels Resorts & Palaces

The Gym

Tipping Point Community

Toms Shoes

Triangle Consulting Social Enterprise

Triodos Bank

UK Ministry of Justice

Unilever Indonesia

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

US Agency for International Development (USAID)

US Department of Health and Human Services

US General Accounting Office

US National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities

Venture Philanthropy Partners

Vestergaard Frandsen

VisionSpring

Wal-Mart Stores

Wellcome Trust

Wells Fargo

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

The book is relevant to organizations, large and small alike, that are ready to step up to the challenges of improving their social impact. This includes those with a poor history of measuring social impact along with those with strong leadership that understands the importance of measurement in increasing their social impact. An extensive list of organizations interviewed is included in the preface. In addition, selected examples from a number of organizations (listed on the facing page) are also included in this book

Individuals working in foundations, NGOs, companies, governmental agencies, and social investment firms need better guidance for practice. Program managers in both developed and developing countries and other staff need more guidance on improving operations to increase impact. Even beneficiaries and hands-off donors can benefit from thinking more rigorously about social impacts. By following the steps in the Social Impact Creation Cycle, both investors and organizations can become more rigorous in defining success, understanding the causal relationships between actions and the desired impacts, measuring these impacts, and amplifying the impacts they and other social-purpose organizations can create for the environment and for society.

Over the past decade, stories of wasted money and “dead aid” have been told repeatedly—often with the conclusion that it may be better not to participate in social change at all and to let market forces prevail. But environmental and social problems aren’t going away, and the world needs the resources of nonprofits, corporations, and social investors along with the operating expertise of socially concerned organizations now more than ever. These resources must be employed in the smartest, most impactful ways possible—and this needs to happen now. Let’s begin that journey.

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Endorsements

“Epstein and Yuthas make sense out of the often confusing world of metrics and performance measurement, offering investors, social entrepreneurs, and donors new perspectives on how to approach the challenge of measurement—and how to convert that challenge into an opportunity! They review a variety of approaches to metrics and give readers the skills needed to go from metrics as measurement to metrics as a tool for creating deeper, more sustained value. A must-have for all leaders serious about maximizing the impact of their organization and capital.”
—Jed Emerson, Chief Impact Strategist, ImpactAssets

“This book is a great resource for anyone working to tackle today's complex, global social challenges. Epstein and Yuthas help us ask the right questions, create meaningful measures, and adapt nimbly to test our biggest, boldest ideas and determine if they will deliver the right kind of impact.”
—Steven J. McCormick, President and Trustee, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

“Too often, donors and investors think of social impact measurement as separate from the ‘real work' of doing good. Epstein and Yuthas have developed a clear and practical guide to impact measurement—not just how to do it but how to think about it and integrate it into every aspect of your work. Essential reading for anyone looking to move from good intentions to high impact.”
—Katherina M. Rosqueta, Founding Executive Director, Center for High Impact Philanthropy, University of Pennsylvania

“By posing the right questions and providing useful frameworks, Epstein and Yuthas take us on an absorbing voyage of the challenges and solutions available in the field of social impact measurement. The book is a valuable resource for investors keen to generate social impact in a thoughtful, rigorous, and transparent manner.”
—Nalini Tarakeshwar, Executive Director, Evidence, Measurement and Evaluation, The Children's Investment Fund Foundation, UK

“Whether your annual philanthropic contribution is $5,000 or $5,000,000, this book is a must-read to move people out of poverty faster! Epstein and Yuthas provide a unique balance of introspection and global insights to ensure that impact, scale, and sustainability are achieved.”
—Deval Sanghavi, cofounder and Partner, Dasra Strategic Philanthropy Foundation, India

“Epstein and Yuthas provide a lucid and compelling framework—a logic model—for investors, civil society actors, corporate leaders, and policy makers to use resources more effectively and yield better social results.”
—Rohini Nilekani, Chairperson, Arghyam

“This book is an excellent reference point for social impact investing. Epstein and Yuthas have meticulously researched an impressive cross section of companies, nonprofits, foundations, and individuals to build credible metrics and analytical tools, and they offer useful insights to maximize impact.”
—Zarina Screwvala, Founder-Trustee, Swades Foundation

“Epstein and Yuthas offer a clear and highly accessible approach to measuring and creating social impact. Drawing on a diverse array of examples from around the world, they demonstrate that there are no quick fixes and that systematic measurement is essential.”
—Alnoor Ebrahim, Associate Professor, Harvard Business School, and author of the award-winning NGOs and Organizational Change
 
“Measuring social impact is a topic at the top of so many agendas yet with so little real insight about how to make it real, actionable, and meaningful.
Measuring and Improving Social Impacts is a practical guide for maximizing and amplifying impact. A must-read for those grappling with how to define and evaluate success.”
—Paul Bernstein, CEO, The Pershing Square Foundation

“Although this looks like a thorough guidebook for people starting in the field of social change, it is likely to trigger considerable thinking among those who have been involved in philanthropy and the practice of social change for a long time. The desire to bring about social change is quite simple, but doing something about it can be quite complicated—this book helps you to simplify things to achieve your goals.”
—Madhav Chavan, PhD, CEO, Pratham Education Foundation

Measuring and Improving Social Impacts offers a useful and timely review of the many measurement approaches available to nonprofits, foundations, and impact investors. Epstein and Yuthas provide practical step-by-step guidance along with real-life stories that show how measurement is applied in action and leads to better results.” 
—Fay Twersky, Director, Effective Philanthropy Group, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
 
“A fascinating read . . . very valuable to corporate foundations like mine that are grappling with effectiveness at the foundation level and also understanding and measuring the added value for the corporation and its employees.”
—Vidya Shah, CEO, EdelGive Foundation, Edelweiss Group, India
 
“A welcome addition to the literature…Highly recommended.”
Choice Named one of Sustainable Industries magazine's Best Books of 2008

“An outstanding contribution to the field.”
Strategic Finance


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